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Extension > Minnesota Crop News > September 2011

Wednesday, September 21, 2011

Crop insurance procedures following early season frost

By Gary A. Hachfeld, University of Minnesota Extension Educator, Ag Business Management

The early season frost in September caught many of us off guard. Damage to crops varied statewide but the fundamental question is, as a farmer, what should I do regarding a potential loss regarding my federal crop insurance? There are some basic procedures that one needs to follow in the event of a crop loss regardless of cause. This article outlines some of those procedures.

Friday, September 16, 2011

Soybean Yield Loss Estimates from Early Frost

Seth Naeve - Extension Soybean Agronomist

Few resources are available to producers and agricultural professionals relative to yield losses from late- season frost injury to soybean plants. A study investigating the risks and benefits of long-season soybean varieties was established in 2008. This work was carried out by the Naeve Soybean Production Project, and was funded by the Minnesota Soybean Research & Promotion Council. While we don't have all of the answers that folks search for after a late-season frost, a small piece of this research effort is described below.

Thursday, September 15, 2011

Frost and Freezing Temperature Effects on Soybeans

By Seth Naeve and Dave Nicolai University of Minnesota Extension

A hard frost occurred early Thursday morning (Sept 15th) across much of central and southern Minnesota. The complete effects of this frost or freeze event may not be known for some time. However, most soybean and corn fields have not reached physiological maturity. Yield and quality in these fields were likely affected.

Beyond the minimum temperature and the duration of the freezing temperatures, many cultural and environmental factors will affect the level of damage. Late planting, long season varieties, poor fertility or drainage, and cool temperatures may exacerbate the effects of this early frost/freeze event.

In most crop species, a hard killing frost after physiological maturity has little effect on yields. Physiological maturity is defined as the point at which maximum dry matter accumulation has occurred in the seed. But crops are not ready for harvest at physiological maturity, since dry- down usually takes a longer period of time. Soybeans are usually harvested at moisture contents of 14 percent or less.

Yield and Harvest Considerations for Frost Damaged Corn

Jeff Coulter, Extension Corn Agronomist
September 15, 2011

Frost Figure 1.jpg
Figure 1. Minimum air temperatures on Sept.
15, 2011. From Minnesota Climatology Working Group
Much of Minnesota's corn crop was damaged by frost this morning. For corn, a killing freeze occurs when temperatures are 32 F for 4 hours or 28 F for minutes (Figure 1). A frost or killing freeze can still occur when temperatures are above 32 F, especially in low and unprotected areas when there is no wind.
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