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Showing posts from June, 2014

A Closer Look at Herbicide Rotation Restrictions

By Lizabeth Stahl, Extension Educator in Crops

What herbicides were applied earlier in the growing season can significantly influence the decision of what to do in fields or areas of a field where the original crop was flooded or hailed out.  Planting some kind of a crop can help reduce erosion potential as well as reduce the risk of fallow syndrome (see Reduce risk of fallow or flooded soil syndrome).  However, options can be limited if a herbicide used previously in the growing season has rotational or plant-back restrictions listed on the label.

Reduce Risk of Fallow or Flooded Soil Syndrome with Cover Crops

by Lizabeth Stahl, Extension Educator in Crops, Fabian Fernandez and Daniel Kaiser, Extension Nutrient Management Specialists

The challenging spring of 2014 has resulted in wide-spread planting delays in parts of the state and a significant amount of acres that remain unplanted at this time. If the decision has been made to take the "prevented planting" option for insurance purposes, the question remains about what to do with these acres. In other parts of the state, extensive flooding and/or severe hail has significantly damaged standing crops. In either case, leaving the ground bare greatly increases the risk of not only soil erosion, but also the risk of "Fallow Syndrome" the following year.

Assessing Hail Damage in Corn and Soybean

By Jeff Coulter and Seth Naeve, Extension Agronomists

Recent storms left large areas of Southwestern Minnesota affected by severe hail damage.  Especially hard hit were the counties of Pipestone, Murray, Rock, Nobles, Jackson, and Martin.  Smaller hail events were common in surrounding counties.  Throughout this area, much of the corn was at the V5-V7 stage (5-7 collared leaves) when damaged, and soybean had three fully developed trifoliate leaves (V3).

In late June, assessing hail damage and making replant decisions can be difficult, with many variables to consider on your way to making a final decision to replant or maintain the existing stand. Many of the answers to questions regarding crop yield loss and the need for replanting can be found in the following online guides:

Corn Damage and Replant Guide:

Soybean Damage and Replant Guide:  http://www.extension.umn.…

Prevented planting? Evaluating your insurance options in 2014

by Kent Olson, Extension Economist
Again in 2014, spring rains and flooded fields have delayed or prevented planting for many farmers in Minnesota. If farmers have multi-peril crop insurance and have not been able to plant by their crop's final planting date, they do have options.

For most of Minnesota, the final planting date for corn is May 31. For the northern counties it is May 25. The final planting date for soybeans in Minnesota is June 10. The late planting period extends for 25 days after the crop's final planting date.

Soybean and Corn Seedling Diseases Increase With Flooded and Wet Soil Conditions

Dean Malvick, Extension Plant Pathologist
Photo 1. Flooded soybean field in Minnesota.
Most of the soybean and corn crop is emerged and growing well across Minnesota. Seedling disease problems in scattered soybean and corn fields have been reported in early June and more are expected due to wet and flooded fields. Abundant (or excessive) rainfall and fluctuating temperatures and have created excellent conditions for seedling diseases. This is a good time to check fields for seedling disease problems and efficacy of seed treatments.

Infection of seedlings before or after emergence can result in dead plants, rotted and discolored roots, stunted and discolored plants, and wilting. The problems often occur in patches in fields. Seedling infection can also lead to damage that may not fully develop until mid to late summer, as with Phytophthora root and stem rot and sudden death syndrome. Disease can cause serious damage, but it is just one of many stresses that seedlings are encounter…

Considerations for Flooded Corn and Soybean

Jeff Coulter, Extension Corn Agronomist, Seth Naeve, Extension Soybean Agronomist, Dean Malvick, Extension Plant Pathologist, and Fabian Fernandez, Extension Nutrient Management Specialist
With the recent heavy rains, many corn and soybean fields have areas where crops are experiencing flooded or saturated conditions. This article discusses agronomic and disease issues for corn and soybean exposed to prolonged periods of high soil moisture and cool temperatures.

Agronomic considerations for corn
Growth and development
Young corn can survive flooded condition lasting for about 2 days under warm temperatures (at or above mid-70ºF) to 4 days under cooler temperatures (at or below mid-60ºF). Survivability also is influenced by how much of the plant was submerged and how quickly the water recedes. Corn plants that survived flooded conditions should show new leaf development within 3 to 5 days after water recedes.

Prevented plant: cover crop and forage options

Phyllis Bongard, Educational Content Development and Communications Specialist
The weather continues to challenge farmers in parts of Minnesota. With the late planting window closing, cover crop options for prevented plant acres should be considered. Crops selected for forage use would also be good choices as cover crops. There are several options depending on what a producer's needs and expectations are.

Options for controlling emerged weeds in sugarbeet

by Tom Peters, Extension Sugarbeet Agronomist

I have been traveling the countryside to complete spring planting, like many of our growers in North Dakota and Minnesota. I have traveled past beautiful freshly planted fields, enjoying the contrast between the green ditches and black fields. However, recent heat and rainfall have changed the landscape. One can now row emerged crops in fields. And to no-one's surprise, there are weeds in fields.

Growers have two options for controlling grass and broadleaf weeds in sugarbeets. First option is to implement a postemergence spray program. I suggest you start by reviewing any historical data or fields for weeds to be sure you are absolutely sure of the weed species, weed size and weed density. Use a weed identification guide or ask for help from your ag retailer or extension specialist if you are not sure about the identity of weeds. Consider the following guidelines when using glyphosate:

The Annual Nitrogen Newsletter

John Lamb, Fabian Fernandez, and Daniel Kaiser
University of Minnesota Nutrient Management Team
Nitrogen is important for corn growth, and has been a recent concern. This year similar to many years has not had normal weather. Planting has been delayed by moist conditions and cold temperature. Now with the record rainfalls last weekend (May 30 through June 1, 2014), there are concerns that nitrogen has been lost to leaching or denitrification.

Early concerns
Some of the small grains and corn looked yellow after emergence. This yellow color could have been caused by several conditions and the lack of nitrogen is one of them. First, nitrogen fertilizer applied last fall was lost due to soil water movement from the spring thaw.   If the nitrogen fertilizer had time to convert from an ammonium form to nitrate-N it is possible for movement to occur. This is the reason nitrogen BMP's discourage fall application and use of a nitrate-N source of fertilizer before planting. If the tile …

New Extension Sugarbeet Agronomist supports growers in Minnesota and North Dakota

Dr. Thomas (Tom) Peters recently accepted a position as Extension Sugarbeet Agronomist, North Dakota State University and the University of Minnesota.

The position supports sugarbeet growers in the states of North Dakota and Minnesota. In his role, Tom will be collaborating with faculty and staff, the sugarbeet cooperatives and allied industry on a systems approach for controlling weeds in sugarbeet.

Tom retired in February from Monsanto after nearly 24 years with the company. Most of Tom's career at Monsanto was in the biotech organization where he specialized in corn traits development. Tom returns to NDSU where he obtained his doctorate in agronomy, specializing in weed science under the supervision of Dr. Alan Dexter, longtime NDSU/UM sugarbeet weed specialist. Tom grew up on a dairy farm near Sauk Centre in West-Central Minnesota and received his BS degree from the University of Minnesota in 1983 and his MS degree from Nebraska in 1986.

Tom and his wife, Connie, have relocated…